Canada, the largest supplier of steel to the United States, will impose retaliatory tariffs covering $C16.6 billion in imports from the U, including whiskey, orange juice, steel, aluminium and other products, Canadian Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland said.
Jean-Claude Juncker says the European Union will respond with countermeasures.
And Canada levied a surtax on $16.6 billion of American steel, aluminum and other products, as Prime Minister Justin Trudeau pronounced Trump's claim to be protecting national security an "affront" to Canadians who fought alongside American GIs from World War II to Afghanistan.
Speaking to Sky News, the International Trade Secretary said he would not rule out retaliatory counter measures as "you can not look at every global issue through the prism of Brexit". "That Canada could be considered a national security threat to the U.S. is inconceivable".
The tariffs will hit USA steel and aluminum coming into Canada, but also a variety of other goods such as whiskey, toilet paper and maple syrup.
EU Trade Commissioner Cecilia Malmstrom's words come after the United States president slapped tariffs on steel and aluminium imported from the EU, Canada and Mexico.
Industry representatives were reluctant to comment publicly, with several saying it was too early to know for certain how they would be affected by the USA tariffs - as well as the retaliatory measures introduced later in the day by the Trudeau government.
"We regret that. We would much rather move together in partnership", he said.
"What we have is about 15 counties in the aluminum space and about 20 in the steel space who basically are sending a flood of imports into this country", he said.
It is the top buyer of USA aluminum and the second-biggest buyer of US steel, Guajardo's ministry said.
Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross said the president acted on national security grounds, seeing a rising tide of imports as a threat to the domestic metals industry.
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Canada and Mexico, embroiled in talks with the USA to modernise the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), responded swiftly and German Economy Minister Peter Altmaier said the European Union might team up with them.
The EU, Canada, and Mexico took umbrage with the US's justification for the tariffs. He said he would travel to China on Friday for trade talks this weekend.
The European Commission's president, Jean-Claude Juncker, said Trump's action Thursday amounted to trade protectionism and that Europe would respond with countermeasures.
The NAFTA talks were one factor in the administration's decision to grant exemptions to Canada and Mexico from the steel and aluminum tariffs. Last week the USA administration also launched a national security investigation into vehicle and truck imports.
"This is the strongest trade action Canada has taken in the post-war era". While the trade war is looming, the United States administration is looking into another measure which could cause multi-billion losses to the European economy: evaluating a 25% import tax on cars. Ryan said there are better ways to help American workers and consumers and that he plans to work with Trump on "those better options".
The tariffs will hit products such as plated steel, slabs, coil, rolls of aluminium, tubes and raw materials that are used across manufacturing, construction and the oil sector in America. Dissatisfied with the negotiations, Trump lifted the exemptions, in a move likely to provoke counteraction from trade allies.
"We take the view that without a strong economy, you can not have strong national security", Ross told reporters.
Speaking to reporters in Brussels with Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi, Mogherini said the two "confirmed our joint support for the WTO as the center of the rules-based, multilateral trading system".
But the good news, if there is any, is that Trump may have shot himself in the foot - the trade war is only beginning.
The policy is absurd because its official rationale is national security.