Pollination of the orchids of the genus Ophrys
The Biological Phenomenon.
Orchids of the genus Ophrys are pollinated exclusively or almost exclusively by males of certain types of Hymenoptera Aculeata. The flowers do not secrete nectar. When males Hymenoptera Aculeate. The flowers do not secrete nectar. When Hymenoptera males are attracted to being placed on the flowers of Ophrys, the lip produces a behavior equivalent to the introduction in the copula; in this way the pollen is released and the pollination is effected.
So far it has been verified that the genera of Hymenoptera Aculeata involved in this proseso are; Campsocolia, Argogorytes, Colletes, Andrena s. In relation to the study of the stimuli that work in the process of polinization of the flowers of Ophrys Eucera, Tetralonia, Anthophora and Melecta. / em> Through the sexual excitation of Hymenoptera Aculeate males, the following conclusions can be drawn.
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Olfactory stimulation is undoubtedly a - so-called - stimulus key. Tactile stimulation is also of great importance as a key stimulus. The characteristic structure of the epidermins at the top of the lip of Ophrys as well as the solid construction of the lip are necessary for the tactile movements and the turns on the lip.
Conclusions. The chemical and morphological characteristics of Ophrys flowers, which distinguish them from other closely related orchid species, may with good reason be supposed to be adapted, considering the regularity in the occurrence of its properties within the large group of orchids Ophrydoideae in question, clearly correlated with specialized entomogamy. The flower Ophrys should be considered as an adaptable flower. Ophrys species are - by their pollination - adapted to the copulation instinct of males of certain types of Aculeata hymenoptera.
The pollination biology characteristic of the genus Ophrys < / em> offers a spectrum of ligatures of different strength, at one end with the more strictly specialized O. speculum and on the other, the less strictly specialized O species. apifera partially pollinated by Eucera and partly self-pollinated. The remaining species are located in the middle. One could say that the species O. speculum has a single strictly regulated life insurance, O. apifera double insurance, and the remaining species, simple life insurance that are based on various alternatives.