The Russian veto came after US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson declared following talks in Moscow that there was a "low level of trust" between the United States and Russia.
Lavrov said after the meeting that both sides agreed that there should be an investigation into the alleged April 4 sarin gas attack on the northern town of Khan Sheikhoun - a strike that killed almost 100 civilians, injured hundreds more and elicited a fierce USA retaliatory strike two days later.
Trump's relations with Russian Federation are also a domestic issue, as US intelligence agencies have accused Moscow of using computer hacking to intervene in the election to help Trump win.
As her boss Rex Tillerson, the USA secretary of state, was meeting Russian President Vladimir Putin in Russia, Haley told the council, "It is long past time for Russia to stop covering for Assad".
"Right now, we're not getting along with Russian Federation at all".
"The world's two foremost nuclear powers can not have this type of relationship", Mr Tillerson warned. Prior to the meeting, Lavrov urged Tillerson to prevent more US bombings in Syria. -Russian ties and identify problems. He said the two sides would also discuss disagreements on Syria and how to end the country's six-year civil war.
But, Tillerson echoed Trump's negative comments during his press conference earlier that day with Russian diplomat Sergei Lavrov.
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He added it was "highly likely" the Assad regime was behind the chemical attack, which prompted the U.S. to attack a regime airbase in retaliation. And he suggested that possible war crimes charges could be levied against the Syrian leader.
Numerous Western powers, including the United States, blamed the government of Bashar al-Assad of the attack. US spending, too, has tapered off in recent years. Trump told Fox Business Network that his strikes were exclusively because Assad used chemical weapons.
But he said Moscow and Washington had agreed to continue co-operating to try to find a political solution for Syria. But he and the president have made it clear that the ball to improve it is squarely in Putin's court.
Lavrov had greeted Tillerson with unusually icy remarks, denouncing the missile strike on Syria as illegal and accusing Washington of behaving unpredictably.
Tillerson, who arrived on Tuesday on his first visit to Russia since he was named to lead the U.S. State Department, is meeting for talks with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov. "We consider it of utmost importance to prevent the risks of replay of similar action in the future".
More than 80 people were killed in what the U.S. has described as a nerve gas attack that President Bashar Assad's forces undoubtedly carried out. The US scoops up such a large volume of communications intercepts in areas like Syria and Iraq, the material often is not processed unless there is a particular event that requires analysts to go back and look for supporting intelligence material. "No", Trump said. But, he added, "I see them using gas.we have to do something".
The pair could meet with Putin later today, state-run Tass reports, citing Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov saying there's a "certain possibility" that Putin might receive Tillerson and Lavrov.