According to initial reports a man wielding an axe entered the station and injured two people.
German daily newspaper Rheinische Post reported a suspect had been apprehended, but police had given no details about the identity, motive or how many were injured.
One photo from the scene shows paramedics treating someone lying on the ground, taped off by a cordon.
Another police spokesman, Andreas Czogalla, said that at least one of the victims had been seriously injured, and that there were no indications of other attackers.
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Twitter user Bruno Macedo tweeted: "Man with axe chased by police in Dusseldorf".
Terrified passengers have taken to social media to say the situation inside the station "looks bad". The train station remains closed and trains have been diverted.
A federal police spokesman said two suspects had been arrested in connection with the attack.
Trains also stopped running to the central station as armed cops flooded the area.